provide a structure for the proceedings and debate in the various
organs of the African Union. The rules have no value other than
creating a known and regular procedure or means through which the
substantive work of the Model is conducted. The rules do not
presuppose any particular outcome in terms of the substance of
resolutions. The rules do not make inevitable the inclusion or
exclusion of a resolution or any of its provisions. The rules do
create a framework of expectations and actions regarding the
process of introducing and debating resolutions and in terms of the
facilitating the meetings. Together with the schedule of events,
the rules are the "bones" of the Model and the activity of
delegates puts "flesh" on those bones. The neutrality of the rules
-- their applying equally to all delegations -- does not mean,
however, that the use of the rules has no effect on the eventual
outcome. A skillful use of the rules by a delegation can delay the
vote on a resolution or even lead to its defeat.
1. These Rules incorporate, and take precedence over the procedural
portions of the
Constitutive Act of the African Union. In the event of dispute the
interpretation of the
Chair is final, provided there is not a successful appeal.
2. The official language for all sessions is English. Business may
be conducted in other languages only if the speaker provides
3. All Member States belong to the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government as well as the following organs:
The Executive Council
The Technical Committee on Economic Matters
The African Union Development Committee
The Technical Committee on Social Matters
The Peace and Security Committee
4. The seating of delegations in organs of the Model A.U. and in
the Assembly of Heads of State and Government shall be
5. Other subsidiary bodies may be established with the approval of
ADVISORS AND CONSULTANTS
6. The Secretariat of the Model African Union shall designate
Faculty Members to serve as Faculty Advisors and Consultants in the
various organs of the Model A.U.
7. The Faculty
Advisors and Consultants shall attend to the needs of all delegates
shall not be
limited to their own delegates.
8. The Faculty Advisors and Consultants serve as provisional Chairs
of their Committees and the Executive Council at the beginning of
their first meeting. Thereafter, they shall assist the Chairs and
other Officers in running the sessions as necessary. Faculty
advisors and consultants shall not vote or participate in
9. Faculty Advisors with the guidance of the Director shall take
actions as necessary to ensure the smooth functioning and integrity
of all organs of the Model A.U.
10. In accepting a country assignment, faculty advisors, their
sponsoring institutions and delegations accept the responsibility
to fully prepare the representation of their country and to observe
the process of the Model as contained in materials provided by the
11. Committee, Executive Council, and Assembly of Heads of State
and Government officers, namely the Chair, Vice Chair, Rapporteur,
and Parliamentarian shall be appointed by the Director. Delegates
shall, with the endorsement of their faculty advisor, apply for
appointment as officers. Application must be made by September 26
in the year during which the model takes place. Successful
applicants will be notified by October 10.
12. Officers appointed by the Director shall perform the work of
their office as specified in the rules of procedure, the program,
and as communicated to the officer by the Director. With respect to
appointment to office and the interpretation of work to be
performed, the decision of the Director is final. Officers will
work with Faculty Advisors and Consultants, and the Secretariat to
ensure the smooth running of all aspects of the Model.
13. Officers of the Committees and the Executive Council may play a
full part as representatives of their delegations in deliberating
and voting on proposals. During that time they may be required to
hand over their official duties to other officers until the item
has been passed, been defeated, or otherwise been removed from
consideration. Officers of the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government are officers of the Model AU and may not represent their
delegation in deliberating and voting on resolutions in the
Assembly of Heads of State and Government.
14. All officers shall meet with the Secretariat as scheduled in
the Program and/or as needed to discuss their duties and problems
arising in the execution of their offices.
15. The officers of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government
shall be the Chair, Vice Chair, Parliamentarian and Rapporteur.
Unlike the Committees and Councils, officers of the Assembly of
Heads of State and Government may not represent their delegation in
debating and voting on resolutions.
16. The officers of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government
shall be elected by the secretariat and the officers of all the
committees and councils at the end of deliberative sessions on
Friday. The election of the Chair shall be conducted by the
Secretariat. Once elected, the Chair will conduct the election of
17. During the election, a candidate will be eligible for a
position within the Assembly of Heads of State and Government that
is the same office that he or she is had in the committee or
18. In addition to those powers specified elsewhere, the Chair of a
Committee, the Executive Council and of the Assembly of Heads of
State and Government shall: interpret these Rules; rule on Points
of Order; assure parliamentary order; accord speaking rights; put
the question; announce decisions; limit the number of times a
delegate may speak on any question; open and close the speakers
list; and close debate.
19. The agenda of the Opening Session will be the following (in
a. Roll Call of
b. Convening of the
d. Adjournment to
Committees and the Executive Council.
20. The agenda of
the meeting of each Committee immediately following the Opening
include the following (in order):
a. Briefing by Faculty Advisor;
b. Introduction of Officers and Delegates;
c. Receipt of Resolutions;
d. Assignment of resolutions to agenda topics;
e. Identification of duplicative and/or similar resolutions and the
for their consolidation prior to their introduction at a
f. Caucusing of
delegations to gain sponsorship for draft resolutions;
21. The agenda for the ordinary substantive sessions of the
Committees shall include the following (in order):
a. Ordering of Agenda topics;
b. Consideration of and action on Resolutions.
22. The Committees shall only consider the agenda topics assigned
23. Motions to change the order of topics on the agenda require for
passage a two-thirds majority.
24. The agenda for the Assembly of Heads of State and Government
shall be (in order):
a. Receive report from the Executive Council;
b. Consider and take action on resolutions submitted by the
25. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government shall take
cognizance of the report by the Executive Council but shall not
debate or vote on the Council's report.
26. The agenda of the first meeting of the Executive Council
immediately following the Opening Session shall include the
following (in order):
c. Introduction of a crisis by Home Government;
d. Preliminary discussion of the crisis by the Council;
27. The agenda for the substantive meetings of the Executive
Council shall be the resolution of a crisis. The crisis will begin
in the early stages of the model and, therefore, the preparation
and submission of resolutions prior to that time is not
28. The Executive
Council may require a Committee to undertake a specific task
to the Council's
business. The Council will communicate the specific task to the
Committee(s) in writing and through a verbal briefing by an officer
or member of the Council. The Council shall designate one of its
members to liaise with a Committee that has been tasked. Executive
Council directives to Committees shall interrupt and take
precedence over all other Committee proceedings until the specified
task is completed.
PROCEDURES AND RULES OF DEBATE
29. A proposed resolution is a substantive document submitted for
decision. Fifty printed copies of each resolution must be submitted
to the Secretariat by 12noon on the day of the Opening Session and
each delegation should also submits its resolution on computer
disk. A proposal must not be debated until it has an original
sponsor and four co-sponsors and until copies have been received by
all delegations. Proposals can be altered by "amendments," and
other procedural decisions are made by "motions." Motions to
introduce proposals or amendments (or any other motion, for that
matter) may be made either in a speech or after being recognized by
30. No single delegation may be the original sponsor of more than
one resolution in each Committee. Delegations may co-sponsor more
than one resolution in each Committee.
31. An amendment
is anything that adds to, deletes from, or changes a proposal.
replacing the original proposal or not directly related to it is
not an amendment and shall be ruled out of order by the Chair. An
amendment may not itself be amended. An amendment which is counter
to an amendment already adopted shall be ruled dilatory by the
32. No one may speak without first being recognized by the Chair.
When speaking, delegates will see that their remarks are germane to
the topic. If they fail to do so, the Chair shall call them to
order without delay.
33. At any time, a delegate may complain of improper procedure
under these Rules by raising a Point of Order. The Chair shall
immediately rule upon the Point and his/her decision is final,
unless a two-thirds majority votes to Appeal (and thereby reverse)
his/her decision. A Point of Order is the only action that may
interrupt a speaker.
34. In order to question the Chair on any matter, delegates will
rise to a Point of Information. The Point of Information will not
interrupt any speaker.
35. To end the session for a specified period of time, a motion to
suspend the session will be required. Such a motion would be
required to end the morning or afternoon session in expectation of
resuming at a specified time. Such a motion is not debatable, and
is decided by a simple majority. The same applies to a motion to
adjourn, which is necessary when the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government, the Executive Council or a Committee has dispensed with
all its business and wishes to end its deliberations for the year.
Both motions may be ruled dilatory by the Chair, whose decision is
subject to Appeal.
36. The order of precedence of motions is as follows:
a. Point of Order;
b. Suspend the Session;
c. Adjourn the Session;
d. Suspend/Resume Debate;
e. Close Debate;
f. Other motion (The Proposal under Discussion [main motion]).
37. A motion or proposal may be altered by a "friendly amendment"
-- a change agreed to by all sponsors of that motion or proposal.
Such amendments must be announced to the Chair.
38. A motion, proposal, or amendment may be withdrawn by all its
sponsors at any time before it is put to a vote. Once withdrawn,
the Chair will ask if any delegate wishes to pick up its
sponsorship. Any delegate may do so. If a delegate wishes to pick
up sponsorship, that delegate will be given a five-minute recess in
which to obtain the necessary additional four co-sponsors. If no
one wishes to pick up sponsorship, the motion, proposal, or
amendment is no longer under consideration.
39. Once the decision on a proposal or amendment has been
announced, any delegate who voted with the majority may move for
its reconsideration. A two-thirds majority is required for
reconsideration. If such a majority is forthcoming, a re-vote will
be taken. The Chair may rule such motions dilatory. This ruling is
subject to appeal.
40. Once a Committee or the Executive Council decides to open
discussion on a topic, the Chair will establish a speakers' list of
no more than ten. Those wishing to speak will raise their placards
and will be assigned a position on the list. The Chair will call
upon delegates to speak in the order they appear on the speakers'
list. Delegates may request to be added to the list any number of
times until the Chair limits the number of times a delegate may
speak, closes the speakers' list, or debate is closed by a motion.
Debate will continue until it is suspended or closed, the meeting
is suspended or adjourned, or the speakers' list is exhausted (once
exhausted, the Chair will announce closure of debate and bring the
proposal, if any, to an immediate vote).
41. In the case of a speakers' list on a sponsored resolution, the
main sponsor will be the first person listed. The main sponsor will
respond to procedurally correct points of inquiry.
42. The main sponsor of each resolution, in Committees only, will
be given two minutes to speak. All other speakers on the speakers'
list shall be given one and one-half minutes. The Chair will call
speakers to order if they exceed their time. The Chair shall ensure
that all delegates have equal opportunity to participate in
43. Prior to beginning his/her speech, a delegate may request that
all or part of his/her time be yielded to another. Time can only be
44. A delegate may speak to the topic, any proposals that have been
moved under the topic, any moved amendments thereto, or all of the
above while on a particular speakers' list.
45. A maximum of five Points of Inquiry addressed to the main
sponsor of a draft resolution or amendment will be allowed. The
Chair will ask for such points of inquiry immediately after the
proposer has spoken. The maximum time for making points of inquiry
and responding to them will be one and one-half minutes each.
46. A Point of Inquiry may be used to question the sponsor after
he/she has finished his/her remarks: a questioner will address the
Point to the Chair, who will then ask the speaker if he/she "wishes
to yield." In order to ask a second question, a second Point of
Inquiry will have to be raised, and the speaker again asked to
yield. The Chair will ensure that Points of Inquiry are only used
to raise questions of clarification or for additional
47. At any time a delegate may make a motion to suspend debate on
either a proposal or a topic. The Chair will allow two speakers for
the Suspension and two against, and will limit time. Speeches must
be germane to the suspension only. After the speeches, an immediate
vote will be taken, a simple majority being necessary. Once
suspended, debate on a proposal or a topic may not be resumed until
a resumption of debate motion is made, and passes by a simple
majority without debate.
48. At any time prior to the exhaustion of the speakers list, a
delegate may move closure of debate on a proposal or topic. The
Chair will allow two speakers against closure (only), and will
limit time and ensure that the remarks are germane to the closure.
A vote will immediately follow the speeches, with a two-thirds
majority necessary. Once debate is closed on a proposal, any
amendments moved to it will come to an immediate vote, followed by
the proposal itself (as amended). When debate is closed on a topic,
any moved proposals and amendments moved thereto will come to an
immediate vote. This means that all proposed resolutions which have
been submitted with the requisite number of co-sponsors will be
voted on immediately.
49. After the debate is closed, either through exhaustion of the
speaker list or a successful closure motion, the proposed
resolution or amendment will come to an immediate vote. If debate
is closed on a topic, proposed resolutions will be voted on in the
order they were submitted to the Secretariat. If adopting one
resolution necessarily implies excluding a subsequent proposed
resolution, this latter resolution shall be ruled out of order.
50. Each Committee
shall establish an order of presentation of its resolutions to the
51. Committees shall deliberate and act upon individual resolutions
until the time for the meeting has ended or the agenda is
exhausted. The passing of a number of resolutions en bloc is not
52. Resolutions passed by Committees shall be considered by a
Technical Meeting of Committee and Assembly of Heads of State and
Government Officers chaired by the Secretariat. This Meeting shall
coordinate the work of the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government where resolutions are adopted in their final form. In
this respect, the Meeting shall:
a. Attempt to identify similar or overlapping resolutions and
b. Ensure that the
phraseology of resolutions comply with the style adopted
in resolutions of the actual A.U.
In the event that the work of the Meeting affects the order of
presentation of a Committee's resolutions to the Assembly, it will
be the responsibility of that Committee's Officers to revise the
order of presentation.
The Officers of the Executive Council shall prepare a report on the
work of the Council to be presented at the meeting of the Assembly
of Heads of State and Government.
53. Each Member
State shall have one vote and only one voting representative on
each Committee, and in the Assembly of Heads of State and
54. "Resolutions" and amendments thereto of the Committees require
a simple majority. Actions by the Executive Council require a
two-thirds majority. "Resolutions" and amendments thereto of the
Assembly of Heads of State and Government require a two-thirds
55. In determining a majority, whether simple or two-thirds, only
those votes of "yes" or "no" shall be counted. A vote of "abstain"
shall not be used in determining whether there is a majority.
56. Unless otherwise specified, all voting will be by show of
placards. Before voting
commences, any delegation may request a roll-call vote. The Chair
shall rule on the
request, and his/her ruling is subject to Appeal. The roll call
shall be in alphabetical
order, starting at a random point determined by the Chair for each
vote. The voting
may not be interrupted except by a Point of Order concerning voting
57. When taking a vote by show of placards, the Chair will ask for
"those in favor," "those opposed," and "abstentions." When named in
a roll call, a delegate shall answer "yes," "no," "abstain," or
"Pass." If he/she responds with the latter, the delegate has
indicated his/her desire to pass at this time. The Chair will run
through the entire roll once, and will then call those who have
"Passed." Upon being called a second time, a delegate will respond
"yes," "no," or "abstain" (only).
58. Once all votes have been tabulated, the chair, only on
roll-call votes, will ask for "changes in vote." After any changes
have been noted, the result of the vote is announced. If a motion
to reconsider (prohibited in the Assembly) is not forthcoming, the
body moves on to consider the next proposal or, if no proposals
remain under a topic, the Chair will entertain a motion to suspend
debate on that topic and move on.
59. After debate on a proposal or amendment has been closed, but
before voting commences, a delegate may move to divide the
question. He/she would do so if he/she desires to vote on the
proposal or amendment in several parts. Such a motion must specify
the intended division, is not debatable, and is put to an immediate
vote, a simple majority being required. Once all parts of a
proposal or amendment are voted on, the entire proposal or
amendment shall be put to a vote. If all of the operative parts of
a proposal are rejected, then the proposal itself is rejected.
60. After the decision has been announced, the Chair will ask for
any explanations of votes. Any delegate may explain his/her vote,
with the Chair limiting time.
PROCEDURES FOR RESOLUTIONS IN THE ASSEMBLY OF HEADS OF
STATE AND GOVERNMENT
61. Resolutions passed by Committees are automatically moved and
seconded at the Assembly of Heads of State and Government.
62. As each resolution is moved at the Assembly, the Chair will ask
"Is there any unreadiness to act on this resolution?" A delegation
is unready to act if it wishes to move an amendment and will
indicate this by raising its placard.
63. If no delegation indicates unreadiness, the Chair will move to
an immediate vote, a two-thirds majority being necessary for
passage. Re-opening or extending the speakers' list and extending
the time to speak are prohibited.
64. All motions to amend each resolution from Committee will be
moved at the same time that the resolution is brought to the
Assembly. Each proposed amendment must be moved and be seconded by
two additional delegations. Moved and seconded draft amendments
shall be debated and voted upon in the order they are moved and
65. Once an amendment has been moved and seconded the Chair will
open a Speakers' List consisting of two speakers for and two
against the amendment. Each speaker is limited to one minute.
Following this debate an immediate vote will be taken, a two-thirds
majority being necessary for passage. Re-opening or extending the
speakers' list and extending the time to speak are prohibited.
66. Once all amendments have been moved, debated and voted upon,
the main motion (as amended) will be considered. The Chair will
open a speakers' list composed of two speakers against the motion
only, each of which may speak for one minute. Following this debate
an immediate vote will be taken, a two-thirds majority being
necessary for passage. Re-opening or extending the speakers' list
and extending the time to speak are prohibited.
67. Friendly amendments are not allowed in the Assembly of Heads of
State and Government.
68. Once moved and seconded, an amendment may not be withdrawn by
the sponsoring delegation or the seconding delegations in the
69. Motions for reconsideration are not allowed in the Assembly of
Heads of State and Government.
70. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government shall consider
one resolution in turn from each Committee in the order
Development, Economic, Peace and Security, and Social until the
time for meeting or number of resolutions is exhausted. Each
Committee shall establish an order of presentation of its
resolutions to the Assembly.
71. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government shall deliberate
and act upon individual resolutions until the time for the meeting
has ended or the agenda is exhausted. The passing of a number of
resolutions en bloc is not advised
72. Delegates may not yield their time during debate in the
73. Motions to suspend or close debate are not allowed in the
74. There shall be a Home Government composed of Faculty Advisors
appointed by the Director.
75. Any delegation may request information or guidance from its
Home Government on forms provided by the Secretariat.
76. The Home Government may provide information and instructions to
a delegation at any time. In all cases without exception
delegations must follow Home Government Instructions.
77. The Home Government will communicate with the Executive Council
on the circumstances and resolution of the crisis. In all cases,
without exception, the Officers of the Executive Council are bound
by Home Government Instructions.
78. The Officers of the Executive Council may request information
or guidance from the Home Government.
ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS
79. Any decisions on the admission of new Members shall first be
submitted to the Assembly for consideration. Passage requires a
AMENDING THE TREATY
80. Amendments to the Constitutive Act may not be considered by
this Assembly but it may consider the creation of protocols
mentioned in the Act.
81. Certificates of participation shall be awarded to all
82. Robert's Rule or Order, Revised will be the
parliamentary authority for all rules of procedure not covered
1. Simple majority: 50% + 1 of those voting on the issue, excluding
2. Two-thirds majority: 66.67% of those voting on the issue,
excluding all abstentions.
3. Two-thirds absolute majority: 66.67% of the membership of the
Committee, Executive Council or Assembly of Heads of State and
4. There is one speaker's list on any one issue, set of inquiries
or amendment. It is not divided into "for" and "against" since some
speakers are not specifically for or against the issue but rather
may wish to propose amendments, etc.